The total number of samples and number of replicates.
Set Ne, note that event times are in discrete generation times in units
of 4Ne. It is safe to set this very high when selection is not considered.
Set the value of θ = 4Neμ
Output gene trees.
Set recombination rate ρ = 4Ner where r is the recombination rate
between the ends of a unit length sequence. If nsites are omitted then an
infinite sites recombination model is used.
Set growth parameter of all populations to α.
Set up a structured population model. The sample configuration must
add up to the same total number of samples as specified by -ms.
Set the size of subpopulation i to xNe.
Set the growth rate of subpopulation i to αi.
Set the (i,j) element of the migration matrix to Mij.
Set the entire migration matrix.
Set all elements of the migration matrix at time t to x∕(npop - 1)
Split subpopulation i into subpopulation i and npop+1 pastward. Each
lineage currently in subpopulation i is retained with probability p, otherwise
it is moved to the new population. The migration rates to the new
subpopulation are zero and its population size is set to Ne.
Join subpopulation i to subpopulation j. All migration matrix entries
with subpopulation i are set to zero. The population size of i is also set to
zero. With selection this population is ignored pastward from this time.
Set some parameter pastward from time t. Here [X] can be any of G g
n m ma and the meaning is defined as for the normal command, for example
-en t i x sets the population size of deme i to xNe pastward from time t.
Set the neutral loci starting and stopping positions for n loci. Note that
must be ai′ < ai+1 for all i and that there must be 2n values. All parameters
assume a sequence length of 1. This other parameter needs to be scaled
Set the selection strength of the homozygote.
Set the selection strength of the heterozygote.
Set the forward mutation rate for the selected allele in units of 4Neμ′.
That is the mutation from the wild type a to derived type A.
Set the backward mutation rate for the selected allele in units of 4Neν′.
That is the mutation from the selected type A to the wild type a.
Set the position x in the sequence of the selected allele.
Set the selection strength in deme i to the specified values pastward
from time t.
Set the selection simulation stopping condition to fixation at time t
pastward from sampling time. Note the demographic model must be time
invariant for this option not to raise an error. It is up to the user to ensure
that the parameters permit the model to always go to fixation, otherwise it
will keep simulating till it runs out of memory.
Set the start of selection to time t forward in time from this point. The
initial frequencies of the beneficial allele are x1,x2,…. Note that this option
is not compatible with -SF.
Output windowed θ estimates (both Wattersons and π based estimators)
and Tajima’s D with window size w and step size s. If onlySummary, then
only the averages of all replicates are output. The output format is a table
formatted as follows: The first column is the bin position. The second
column is the Watterson’s θ estimator. The third column is the π1
estimator and the last column is Tajima’s D. The summary also contains
the standard deviations for the previous data column. Thus, column 3 is
the standard deviation of the Wattersons θ estimators.
Output the number of origins of the beneficial allele in the sample. A
count of 0 or 1 means a hard sweep if conditioned on fixation.
Output allele frequency spectra. If the jAFS option is specified, all pairwise deme joint frequency spectra are output.